Constitution of the United States/Art. I/Sec. 8/Clause 12 Army

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Constitutional Law Treatise
Table of Contents
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Constitutional Law Outline
Introduction
The Preamble
Article I Legislative Branch
Art. I, Section 1 Legislative Vesting Clause
Art. I, Section 2 House of Representatives
Art. I, Section 3 Senate
Art. I, Section 4 Congress
Art. I, Section 5 Proceedings
Art. I, Section 6 Rights and Disabilities
Art. I, Section 7 Legislation
Art. I, Section 8 Enumerated Powers
Art. I, Section 9 Powers Denied Congress
Art. I, Section 10 Powers Denied States
Article II Executive Branch
Art. II, Section 1 Function and Selection
Art. II, Section 2 Powers
Art. II, Section 3 Duties
Art. II, Section 4 Impeachment
Article III Judicial Branch
Art. III, Section 1 Vesting Clause
Art. III, Section 2 Justiciability
Art. III, Section 3 Treason
Article IV Relationships Between the States
Art. IV, Section 1 Full Faith and Credit Clause
Art. IV, Section 2 Interstate Comity
Art. IV, Section 3 New States and Federal Property
Art. IV, Section 4 Republican Form of Government
Article V Amending the Constitution
Article VI Supreme Law
Article VII Ratification
First Amendment: Fundamental Freedoms
Religion
Establishment Clause
Free Exercise Clause
Free Speech Clause
Freedom of Association
Second Amendment: Right to Bear Arms
Third Amendment: Quartering Soldiers
Fourth Amendment: Searches and Seizures
Fifth Amendment: Rights of Persons
Sixth Amendment: Rights in Criminal Prosecutions
Seventh Amendment: Civil Trial Rights
Eighth Amendment: Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Ninth Amendment: Unenumerated Rights
Tenth Amendment: Rights Reserved to the States and the People
Eleventh Amendment: Suits Against States
Twelfth Amendment: Election of President
Thirteenth Amendment: Abolition of Slavery
Thirteenth Amend., Section 1 Prohibition on Slavery and Involuntary Servitude
Thirteenth Amend., Section 2 Enforcement
Fourteenth Amendment: Equal Protection and Other Rights
Fourteenth Amend., Section 1 Rights
Fourteenth Amend., Section 2 Apportionment of Representation
Fourteenth Amend., Section 3 Disqualification from Holding Office
Fourteenth Amend., Section 4 Public Debt
Fourteenth Amend., Section 5 Enforcement
Fifteenth Amendment: Right of Citizens to Vote
Fifteenth Amend., Section 1 Right to Vote
Fifteenth Amend., Section 2 Enforcement
Sixteenth Amendment: Income Tax
Seventeenth Amendment: Popular Election of Senators
Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibition of Liquor
Eighteenth Amend., Section 1 Prohibition
Eighteenth Amend., Section 2 Enforcement of Prohibition
Eighteenth Amend., Section 3 Ratification Deadline
Nineteenth Amendment: Women's Suffrage
Twentieth Amendment: Presidential Term and Succession
Twentieth Amend., Section 1 Terms
Twentieth Amend., Section 2 Meetings of Congress
Twentieth Amend., Section 3 Succession
Twentieth Amend., Section 4 Congress and Presidential Succession
Twentieth Amend., Section 5 Effective Date
Twentieth Amend., Section 6 Ratification
Twenty-First Amendment: Repeal of Prohibition
Twenty-First Amend., Section 1 Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment
Twenty-First Amend., Section 2 Importation, Transportation, and Sale of Liquor
Twenty-First Amend., Section 3 Ratification Deadline
Twenty-Second Amendment: Presidential Term Limits
Twenty-Second Amend., Section 1 Limit
Twenty-Second Amend., Section 2 Ratification Deadline
Twenty-Third Amendment: District of Columbia Electors
Twenty-Third Amend., Section 1 Electors
Twenty-Third Amend., Section 2 Enforcement
Twenty-Fourth Amendment: Abolition of Poll Tax
Twenty-Fourth Amend., Section 1 Poll Tax
Twenty-Fourth Amend., Section 2 Enforcement
Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Presidential Vacancy
Twenty-Fifth Amend., Section 1 Presidential Vacancy
Twenty-Fifth Amend., Section 2 Vice President Vacancy
Twenty-Fifth Amend., Section 3 Declaration by President
Twenty-Fifth Amend., Section 4 Declaration by Vice President and Others
Twenty-Sixth Amendment: Reduction of Voting Age
Twenty-Sixth Amend., Section 1 Eighteen Years of Age
Twenty-Sixth Amend., Section 2 Enforcement
Twenty-Seventh Amendment: Congressional Compensation

Article I Legislative Branch

Section 8 Enumerated Powers

Clause 12 Army

Clause Text
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

Historical Background on Congress's Authority to Raise and Support Armies[edit | edit source]

The Framers did not insert the constitutional clauses that grant Congress authority to raise and support armies, as well as other related authorities, to endow the National Government rather than the states with these powers, but to designate the department of the Federal Government that would exercise the powers. The English King was endowed with the power not only to initiate war but the power to raise and maintain armies and navies.[1] Because these powers had been used historically to the detriment of the liberties and well-being of Englishmen and the English Declaration of Rights of 1688 provided that the King could not maintain standing armies without the consent of Parliament, the Framers vested these basic powers in Congress.[2]

Time Limits on Appropriations for Army[edit | edit source]

Prompted by the fear of standing armies to which Justice Joseph Story alluded, the Framers inserted the limitation that "no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years." In 1904, the question arose whether this provision would be violated if the government contracted to pay a royalty for use of a patent in constructing guns and other equipment where the payments are likely to continue for more than two years. Solicitor-General Henry Hoyt ruled that such a contract would be lawful; that the appropriations limited by the Constitution "are those only which are to raise and support armies in the strict sense of the word 'support,' and that the inhibition of that clause does not extend to appropriations for the various means which an army may use in military operations, or which are deemed necessary for the common defense. . . ."[3] Relying on this earlier opinion, Attorney General Thomas Clark ruled in 1948 that there was "no legal objection to a request to the Congress to appropriate funds to the Air Force for the procurement of aircraft and aeronautical equipment to remain available until expended."[4]

Conscription[edit | edit source]

The constitutions adopted during the Revolutionary War by at least nine of the states sanctioned compulsory military service.[5] Towards the end of the War of 1812, conscription of men for the army was proposed by James Monroe, then Secretary of War, but opposition developed and peace came before the bill could be enacted.[6] In 1863, a compulsory draft law was adopted and put into operation without being challenged in the federal courts.[7] Yet this was not so with the Selective Service Act of 1917.[8] This measure was attacked on the grounds that it tended to deprive the States of the right to "a well-regulated militia," that the only power of Congress to exact compulsory service was the power to provide for calling forth the militia for the three purposes specified in the Constitution, which did not comprehend service abroad, and finally that the compulsory draft imposed involuntary servitude in violation of the Thirteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court rejected all of these contentions. It held that the powers of the States with respect to the militia were exercised in subordination to the paramount power of the National Government to raise and support armies, and that the power of Congress to mobilize an army was distinct from its authority to provide for calling the militia and was not qualified or in any wise limited thereby.[9]

Before the United States entered World War I, the Court had anticipated the objection that compulsory military service would violate the Thirteenth Amendment and had answered it in the following words: "It introduced no novel doctrine with respect of services always treated as exceptional, and certainly was not intended to interdict enforcement of those duties which individuals owe to the State, such as services in the army, militia, on the jury, etc. The great purpose in view was liberty under the protection of effective government, not the destruction of the latter by depriving it of essential powers."[10] Accordingly, in the Selective Draft Law Cases,[11] it dismissed the objection under that Amendment as a contention that was "refuted by its mere statement."[12]

Although the Supreme Court has so far formally declined to pass on the question of the "peacetime" draft,[13] its opinions leave no doubt of the constitutional validity of the act. In United States v. O'Brien,[14] upholding a statute prohibiting the destruction of selective service registration certificates, the Court, speaking through Chief Justice Earl Warren, thought "[t]he power of Congress to classify and conscript manpower for military service is 'beyond question.'"[15] In noting Congress's "broad constitutional power" to raise and regulate armies and navies,[16] the Court has specifically observed that the conscription act was passed "pursuant to" the grant of authority to Congress in clauses 12-14.[17]

  1. W. Blackstone, Commentaries 263 (St. G. Tucker ed., 1803).
  2. 3 Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States 1187 (1833). While these clauses do not completely divest states of authority in this area, the Supreme Court has held that the states renounced their right to interfere with national policy in this area in the plan of the Convention. Torres v. Tex. Dep't of Pub. Safety, No. 20-603, slip op. 6 (U.S. 2022). Thus, Congress "may legislate at the expense of traditional state sovereignty to raise and support the Armed Forces." Id. at 9.
  3. 25 Ops. Atty. Gen. 105, 108 (1904).
  4. 40 Ops. Atty. Gen. 555 (1948).
  5. Selective Draft Law Cases, 245 U.S. 366, 380 (1918); Cox v. Wood, 247 U.S. 3 (1918).
  6. 245 U.S. at 385.
  7. 245 U.S. at 386-88. The measure was upheld by a state court. Kneedler v. Lane, 45 Pa. St. 238 (1863).
  8. Act of May 18, 1917, 40 Stat. 76.
  9. Selective Draft Law Cases, 245 U.S. 366, 381, 382 (1918).
  10. Butler v. Perry, 240 U.S. 328, 333 (1916) (upholding state law requiring able-bodied men to work on the roads).
  11. 245 U.S. 366 (1918).
  12. 245 U.S. at 390.
  13. Universal Military Training and Service Act of 1948, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, 50 U.S.C. App. §§ 451-473. Actual conscription was precluded as of July 1, 1973, Pub. L. No. 92-129, 85 Stat. 353, 50 U.S.C. App. § 467(c), and registration was discontinued on March 29, 1975. Pres. Proc. No. 4360, 3 C.F.R. 462 (1971-1975 Compilation), 50 U.S.C. App. § 453 note. Registration, but not conscription, was reactivated in the wake of the invasion of Afghanistan. Pub. L. No. 96-282, 94 Stat. 552 (1980).
  14. 391 U.S. 367 (1968).
  15. 391 U.S. at 377, quoting Lichter v. United States, 334 U.S. 742, 756 (1948).
  16. Schlesinger v. Ballard, 419 U.S. 498, 510 (1975).
  17. Rostker v. Goldberg, 453 U.S. 57, 59 (1981). See id. at 64-65. See also Selective Service System v. Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, 468 U.S. 841 (1984) (upholding denial of federal financial assistance under Title IV of the Higher Education Act to young men who fail to register for the draft).