Doe v. Reed

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Doe v. Reed
Court Supreme Court of the United States
Date decided June 24, 2010
Appealed from 9th Circuit


In the state of Washington, citizens can challenge laws through the process of referendums. A petition is a prerequisite for a referendum. The petition must be include the names, addresses, and signatures of 4% of the state voters to meet the threshold for a referendum.

The Secretary of State of Washington is the deciding official for the validity of a referendum.

Opponents of marriage equality sought the names of petitioners for same-sex marriage benefits under the Washington Public Records Act (PRA).

Pro-marriage equality objected to the public disclosure of their names and addresses.

Procedural History

Doe (pro-marriage equality advocates) win at the trial loses.

Doe loses at the 9th Circuit.


Does compelled disclosure of names and addresses of petitioners violate the Petition Clause of the 1st Amendment?


Knowing the names and addresses of the petitioners prevents fraudulent petitions.


Compelled disclosures doesn't violate the 1st Amendment if there is an important government interest.


Exacting scrutiny is the standard for compelled disclosure.